Differences Between Od and Heat, Electricity, and Magnetism Respectively
"Under the term odyle," writes Reichenbach Researches (ed. Greg., p. 242), "I collect and unite all the physical phenomena occurring in the course of these researches, which cannot be brought under any of the hitherto admitted imponderables, and also the vis occulta which produces them. It remains for future investigation to determine whether and to what extent these phenomena will admit of being distributed among, or transferred to, the known forces above mentioned." But, in any event, he adds, "we shall never be able to do without the word odyle, or some equivalent term, on the adoption of which men may agree. Such a term must always be required to embrace a mass of phenomena, which cannot with propriety or accuracy be registered save as a peculiar group."
Meantime he sets down, and adheres firmly to, the following
Differences : [Ibid., pp. 230 sqq.]
A. Between Odyle and Heat
- Od affects neither thermometer nor thermoscope.
- (α). A right hand cools sensitives, warms thermoscope.
(β) A sunbeam cools sensitives, warms meter.
(γ) Moonlight warms sensitives, has no effect od thermoscope.
(δ) Fire radiates cold to sensitives, heat to the thermometer.
(ε) Chemical processes cool sensitives, often indicate disengagement of heat on thermoscope.
- Od far more conductible through metals than heat. Copper wire will only conduct heat through a few inches, but od through 70 feet or more.
- Od passes very easily through thick bodies, e.g. walls, impervious to solar heat: sensitives inside a house instantly distinguish a sun-rayed outside wall (by its sensation of cool) from a shaded one.
- Od from magnets, crystals, hands, or trees, felt through air at 400 feet distance: no calorific radiations from bodies in the ordinary temperature indicated by any instrument at such distance.
- Odylic heat and cold does not affect density or volume of bodies.
- High sensitives perceive very great differences of apparent temperature between different colours of solar, lunar, and combustion spectrum.
- Wires appear glowing hot to the sensitive, which are not so to ordinary sense and thermoscope.
- Sun-rayed water is cooler to the sensitive than shaded water.
- A porcelain or wooden rod heated at one end grows very cold to the sensitive holding the other end.
- Heat itself under certain circumstances produces odylic cold.
"Therefore Heat must be essentially distinct from Odyle."
B. Between Odyle and Electricity
- The spectra of different kinds of light after transmission through glass.
- The human hand.
- Chemical process (in part).
- Odyle enters into the mass of any body it charges; free electricity stratifies itself only on the surface. Odylized water remains so after pouring from glass to glass.
Odyle may for a time charge the air in a room, whereas Faraday could not collect electricity in a room prepared for the purpose. It escaped instantly by the surface of the walls, etc.
- Free odyle charging a body takes a quarter of an hour to several hours before dissipation by contact with other bodies: free electricity is removed by contact instantaneously.
- Odyle—not so electricity—can be condensed in unisolated bodies.
- All bodies continuous in structure (except loosely structured linens, cottons, etc.) are equally good conductors of odyle: electricity only well conducted by metals.
- Odylic conduction slow—20-40 seconds in traversing 50-60 yards of wire: electricity flashes through distances a million times greater in an interval too short to be measured.
- All bodies permeable to odyle : many bodies practically impermeable to electricity.
- As to actio in distans, electricity can induce odyle at a distance at which it is powerless to induce electricity; e.g. an electrical conductor so feebly charged as only to yield a 2-inch spark excites a vivid current of odyle in a wire 6½ feet off.
- Induction of odyle by electricity takes time—30 seconds and upwards—to become manifest, whereas induction of electricity is instantaneous. In Schweigger's multiplicator the odylic light does not become visible till 10-15 seconds after the deflection has taken place.
- Duration of odylic incomparably greater than that of electrical phenomena. A wire glowing odylically by electricity continues to glow 30-60 seconds after being taken out of the current, or for a minutes after the charge of a powerful Leyden jar, when it fades slowly out.
- In cases, odylic light disappears sooner than the excited electricity. Electrical excitement may remain in the resin cake of anelectrophore for days or weeks, whereas the odylic light slowly excited by the strokes of the fur is lost in a few minutes.
- Many odylic flames exhibit a constant upward tendency, rising vertically; electricity, whether in motion or at rest, exhibits no such tendency.
- Odylo-luminous phenomena of great extent appearing over metal plates (electrified or un-isolated) do not adhere to the metallic surface, as the electrical currents do, but flow over it as the aurora borealis does over the earth.
- Odylic currents do not flow merely from the points but also from the sides of bodies, even of jagged bodies, e.g. large crystals: electricity prefers a point for exit.
- In a voltaic pile all the elements give out odyle, whereas only internal activity of the electric current and entire limitation of the current to itself is observable when the circuit is closed.
- Odylic currents excited by electricity show great independence of their cause.
- A positive meeting a negative odylic flame will not unite with or neutralize it; if they cross, each carries the other with it; if directly opposed, they mutually repel each other. Opposite electricities instantly neutralize each other with a powerful mutual attraction.
- "An electrical specimen of shorl, like every crystal, shows at its pole a lively action on' sensitives, but when warmed no change takes place; it becomes no stronger, and the electricity thus excited is not sensibly perceived."
- Electricity has no greater effect on sensitives than on ordinary persons—in strong contrast with the violent action of odyle on their irritable nerve.
"All this shows how great a gulf separates Odyle from Electricity."
C. Between Odyle and Magnetism
Od is produced and manifested in a multitude of cases (e.g. chemical changes, vital changes, in crystals, by friction, in spectra of solar, lunar, and candlelight, in polarized light, and in the amorphous material world collectively), in which magnetism properly so called is not known to exist.
- In general, od is developed alone without magnetism, magnetism never alone without od.
- Magnetism, if any, in solar or lunar rays, so feeble that existence doubtful; while od so powerful and varied in effect as to appear capable in certain cases "of shaking life to its very foundations."
- Mist and cloud instantly diminishes effects of sun and moon on sensitives: "magnetism is arrested by nothing, and least of all by vapours."
- All solids and liquids may be charged with od: only a very few bodies with magnetism, and none yet known with diamagnetism.
- Od-charged bodies act exactly like the magnet on sensitives, but will not attract one particle of iron filings.
- Magnetism remains in steel for years: od cannot remain in steel, iron, or water longer than about one hour: magnetism never observable in water or iron.
- Od conducted to distance of many yards by resin, glass, wood, silk strings, cotton ribbons, etc.: magnetism never so conducted.
- Od conducted by iron wire 50-100 feet long: latter stretched in the magnetic parallels, i.e. at right angles to meridian, and connected at one end with northward pole of nine-bar horseshoe magnet showed no trace of magnetic action at other end.
- Sphere of radiation for od through air 160 feet and more for bodies such as hands, crystals and electrified substances: no such magnetic sphere for magnets of same size.
- Od rays simultaneously and analogously refracted by prism with light rays: Haldat shows by his magnetometer or magnetoscope (L'Institut, 27th May, 1846, p. 647) that magnetic emanations are neither refracted nor reflected.
- Od distributed throughout mass of body charged: magnetism, says Barlow, limited entirely to the surface.
- Od, like electricity, surrounds itself with alternating spherical zones of opposite polarities: not so magnetism.
- Crystals and hands of same size as magnet often surpass it in odylic power: but they will not attract even the minutest iron filings.
- Terrestrial magnetism does not affect direction of od-charged bodies, but causes magnetic bodies to place themselves in the meridian, etc.
- Flames of odylic poles in inorganic world (including flames from poles of horseshoe magnet) show no appreciable attraction for each other: magnetic poles and their lines of force exhibit mutually the very strongest attraction.
- No upward tendency observed in magnetism: odylic flames from horseshoe magnet held horizontally flow horizontally for a space, and then both curve upwards.
- Odylic efflux from magnet continues—though more feebly—when magnetic efflux arrested by detachment of armature.
- Same phenomenon as (r) occurs on neutralization of opposite poles of magnets by junction.
- "Magnets, placed in the electric atmosphere of the conductor, can be made to invert the position of the odylic poles [by turning the positive, southward, red-glowing side of the magnet towards the positively charged conductor] while that of the magnetic poles remains unchanged."
- Magnetic effects appear and disappear instantaneously on start and interruption of magnetic current, while odylic effects lag behind in both cases.
- Powerful sources of od fail to induce magnetic current in coil by induction, when a magnetic needle possessing only a hundredth of the odylic power will do so instantly.
- A magnetic bar gaining in odic power by communication from like hand or like crystalline pole will not support one more grain of iron than before.
- Let northward pole project from left hand and southward be held in palm, reversing action in (w), and its blue flame turns to red, while the pole itself continues unchangeably magneto-negative.
- Odylic flame of magnet may be extinguished by approach of organized living being, without any change in the magnetic power.
- Moon acts odylo-positively on all sensitives, while Kreil [distinguished astronomer of Prague: in his "Astronomical and Meteorological Annual," p. 104] proves moon to be negative magnetically, by [very feebly] attracting southward pole of needle on side turned towards earth. Apparent contradiction removed on consideration of fact that it is only the luminous rays of the moon which entail odylic action on sensitives: the latter ceases, at least in great part, on exclusion of the luminous rays, while "magnetic action, which penetrates all things, could not be excluded" by their exclusion.
- "Of diamagnetism we know only repulsions; which may finally, according to the observations of Haldat, admit of being referred to ordinary magnetic phenomena.
- But a bar of iron lying horizontally in the plane of the magnetic meridian is cooler to the sensitive at its northward end than when depressed to an angle of 65° with the horizon and thus horizontal in the plane of the magnetic inclination.
- Magnetic polarity of unevenly numbered lamellæ of compound magnet is same in all lamellæ at each end of magnet, while lamellæ are shown by colours of their glow to sensitive as alternately blue and red, blue predominating [by number of lamellæ affected] on northward and red on southward side.
- "In the limbs of a horseshoe magnet, during the process of drawing it along another magnet, in a certain limb of the compound magnet positive magnetism and negative odylo-lummous emanations occurred at the same time."
"For the present, therefore, the identity of odylc with magnetism is entirely out of the question."
[The above Differences are condensed from Professor Wm. Gregory's English edition of Reichenbach's Researches]